|The Greek Pavilion|
|Wednesday, 02 February 2011 14:20|
“The politicians of this country have been very careful, whenever organization change or the replacement of specific persons is taking place, policy solutions along general lines which are accordance with the proposals of the artists whom they favour”.
(Michalis Tombros, “The State and Art” Voice of the People newspaper, 14 January 1932.
When Venizelos returned triumphantly to power in 1928, the Liberals did not hesitate to make a determined – in effect, dictatorial - intervention in the direction of implementing their plans for the modernising of the visual arts. The dismissal of Yeorgios Iakovidis from the post of Director of the National Gallery - during their first period in office, in 1918, at the time when the National Gallery’s Regulations were published - did not satisfy them. Indeed, in view of the stratagems implemented by the teaching staff of the school of Fine Arts in electing Nikolaos Lytras instead of Konstantinos Pathenis in 1923, in appointing Dimitris Biskinis by bureaucratic sleight of hand in 1928 and in electing Umvertos Argyros in 1929, Ministerial intervention in the School seemed the only way out.
Evgenios D. Matthiopoulos
Associate Professor of Art History
 Marinos Kalligas, Η Εθνική Πινακοθήκη, Athens 1976, π.6.S. Skipis quotes Iakovidis as complaining that the had “booted him out like an unwanted dog” and he accused the State of never having granted him a person for his 20 years of service – a failure which caused his first attack of apoplexy a year before his death. See S. Skipis, “Ο Δάσκαλος” Βραδυνή newspaper, 14 December 1932, and Anonymous, Γεώργιος Ιακωβίδης, Έθνος newspaper 14 December 1932.
 For the election of Nikos Lytras , see Antonis Kotidis, Για τον Παρθένη Tessaloniki 1984, p.29. D. Biskinis was appointed Professor of “Decoration and Perspective” By the Decree of 18 June 1928 (Government Gazette 97, 26 June 1928), having been chosen through a competitive process organised by the school, and was given the rank of Head of Section Second Class. Later, by the ministerial Act of 19 September 1930 (Government Gazette 178, 19 September 1930), he kept his post in the School, but at the rank of Director First Class and not that of “Areopagite” or Technical University Professor, as was the case with the rest of the teaching staff.
 Argyros was also appointed Professor of Drawing by Decree (that of 14 September 1929, Government Gazette 156, 8 October 1929), after a competitive procedure and was appointed Head of Department Second Class. He, too, kept his post in the School but was given the rank of “Areopagite”
 Government Gazette 285, 16 August 1929; see also the letters of Zacharias Papantoniou to Kostas Dimitriadis in E. Kasdaglis, Γιάννης Κεφαλλινός, ο χαράκτης, Athens 1991, pp. 214-224.
 Decree of 13 November 1929, Government Gazette 212, 11 December 1929.
 Decree of 14 July 1930, Government Gazette 145, 31 July 1930; this Decree also relieved Yeorgios Iakovidis of the post of Director of the School
 The Venice Biennale, that cosmopolitan offspring of internationalization and modernism, was born in 1985 and was the Municipality of Venice’s contribution to the festivities to mark the unification of Italy and the marriage of King Umberto I to Queen Margaret of Savoy. Under the Fascist regime of Mussolini, the Biennale was radically re0 organised and, through the relationship between Fascism and Futurism, developed into a centre for the presentation of modern trends in the visual arts, as well as serving as o major international exhibition. See Lawrence Alloway, The Venice Biennale 1895-1968, London 1968, and Paolo Rizzi, Enzo Di Martino, Storia della Biennale 1895- 1982, Milan 1982.
 Anon., καλλ. Έκθεσις, Πινακοθήκη magazine, no. 44, October 1904, p.158.
 Ippokratis Karavias, Η Kαλλιτεχνική Έκθεσις της Βενετίας, Πινακοθήκη magazine, no 106, December 1909, p. 189.
 Anon., Η Kαλλιτεχνική Έκθεσις της Βενετίας, Πινακοθήκη no 136-137, June-July 1912 , p. 90.
 All these interviews were conducted by Fotis Yoffyllis and were published in the newspaper Proia: Η ζωγραφικής μας και η Έκθεσις της Βενετίας. Συνέντευξις με τον κ. Ε. Θωμόπουλο, 25 November 1925. Το κατηγορητήριον των ζωγράφων κατά της Κρατικής αδιαφορίας. Συνέντευξις με τον ζωγράφον κ. Γ. Ροϊλον, 4 December 1925. Πως φροντίζουν τα Κράτη δια την Τέχνης και πως ημείς. Τι λέγει ο κ. Θ. Θωμόπουλος:, 6 December 1925. Το Κράτος και Τέχνη μας. Τι λέγει ο ζωγράφος κ. Ν. Λύτρας, 10 December 1925; Το Κράτος και οι εκθέσεις. Τι λέει ο Πρόεδρος των Καλλιτεχνών, 14 December 1925; Δεν έχομεν αλληλοβοήθειαν. Συνομιλία με τον γλύπτη κ. Ζευγώλην, 18 December 1925; Η Εκκλησιαστική Τέχνη. Τι λέγει ο κ. Δήμας, 19 December 1925; Δεν έχομεν Κρατικήν Πολιτικήν. Τι λέγει ο κ. Μαλέας, 24 December 1925; Αι γνώμαι των ζωγράφων, 29 December 1925; Να οργανωθούν οι ζωγράφοι. Τι λέγει ο κ. Π. Λύτρας, 30 December 1925; Τα ζητήματα της ζωγραφικής. Τι λέγει ο ζωγράφος κ. Ροϊμπης , 7 January 1926, αnd F. Yofyllis, Η έρευνά μας δια τα καλλιτεχνικά ζητήματα, 10 January 1926.
 For the pact between Greece and Italy, see p.N.Pipinelis, Ιστορία της Εξωτερικής Πολιτικής της Ελλάδος 1923-1941, Athens 1948, p. III-146; Κ.Α.Κaramanlis, Ο Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος και οι εξωτερικές μας σχέσεις 1928- 1932, Athens 1986, pp. 52-57; K. Svolopoulos, Διπλωματική ιστορία της Ελλάδος 1900-1941, Thessaloniki 1980, pp, 184-187; C.Z.Sazanidis, Ξένοι Βάσεις και πυρηνικά στην Ελλάδα / Η Ελλάδα και οι σχέσεις μας με τις μεγάλες δυνάμεις 1821-1981, Thessaloniki 1985, pp. 97-100, and D. Kitsikis, Ελλάς και Ξένοι 1919-1967, p. 106.
 The correspondence between Dimitriadis and the administration of the Biennale must have begun on 3 October 1929 ant the latest; see a typed latter in French, signed by Dimitriadis and headed Paris, 28 October 1929. It is addressed to Antonio Maraini, General Secretary of the Venice International Exhibition (“Serie Scatole Nere/Padiglioni”, busta II, Grecia 1922-1938”, fasc. “Grecia costruzione dei Padiglioni”, ASAC (Archivio Storico delle Arti Contemporanee, Venice). Oficial correspondence between and Italy must have began in June 1929; se the typed letter in Italian signed by the Greek Consul-General in Venice, dated 28 June 1929, to Count Zorgi, Commissioner Extra – Ordinary of the Municipality of Venice, ASAC, op. cit. For the personal intervention of Andreas Michalakopoulos, see the unsigned copy of a typed letter in French from the Administration of the Biennale, headed Venice, 5 August 1931, and addressed to Foreign Minister Andreas Michalakopoulos (3ff, ASAC, op.cit.).
 The following news item appeared in the newspaper Eleftheron Vima on 12 May 1931: “It is hereby announced the second competition proclaimed for the Greek pavilion at the Venice international exhibition has been cancelled. From the Office of the School of Fine Arts”.
 See the typed, signed letter in French from Dimitriadis, headed Paris, 28 August 1931, to Maraini (2ff, ASAC, op.cit.) and N. Calogeropoulos, “Padiglione della Grecia” in the catalogue XIX Esposizione Biennale Internazionale d’Arte Venice 1934, p.339. We know that Y. Papandreou was from Patra, but there in no evidence of a family connection with George Papandreou, then Minister of Education. In 1926, we find Papandreou as a participant in a exhibition organised by the Association des artistes et gens des letters Héllènes de Paris, whose President was Dimitriadis, see the catalogue, Exposition d’ un groupe d’ artistes Héllènes de Paris, 1-20 March 1926, Galerie Charles Brunner, Parris, nο 73, P Haris, Το Ελληνικό Περίπτερο στην Έκθεση της Βενετίας, periodical, Nea Estia no. 278, 15 July 1938, pp. 987-990.
 At this time, the views of A. Zachos on a neo – Byzantine architecture were particularly influential; see D. Filippidis, Νεοελληνική Αρχιτεκτονική, Athens 1984, pp.205-208.
 This emerges from the photographs of the foundation – stone ceremony kept in the ASAC (op. cit). It was during Michalakopoulos visit to Venice that he made the speech entitled “Byzantium and Venice” which the Italians, well aware of his passion for books, published in luxury edition under the title Venezia e Bisanzio (ed. Augustea, Rome 1932), with a foreword by Guiseppe Volpi. See also the Greek edition, Ενετία και Βυζάντιο, Alexandria 1934. When this speech was reprinted Λόγοι ΙΙ, Athens 1964, p880), it was accompanied by a note of its delivery on 27 September 1931, a date which allows us to place it shortly before or after the laying of the foundation – stone for the pavilion.
 It’s a characteristic that the Italian Press heralded the Greek participation of 1932 with extensive articles; see Elio Zorzi, “L’arte moderna ellenica parteciperà dal 1932 alle Esposizioni Biennale di Venezia”, Gazetta di Venezia, 8 May 1931. For the problems in financing the work, see the signed, letter in French from Dimitriadis, Headed Athens, 18 November 1931 (2ff ), and that of 27 January 1932 (2ff) to Antonio Maraini (ASAC, op. cit). The Italians, on the other hand, inaugurated the Casa d’ Italia in Athens in April 1932; τα χθεσινά εγκαίνια του Ιταλικού Οίκου, newspaper Proia, 11 June 1932.
 “L Italia tiene il posto di grade potenza che il suo destino le ha assegnato”, said Michalakopoulos on 11 June 1932, addressing the Italian Minister of Education who was in Athens for the opening if the Casa d’Italia; see Πρόποσις εις γεύμα προς τιμήν του επί Δημόσίας Παιδείας Υπουργού της Ιταλίας Balbino Giulino’, in A. Michalakopoulos, Μικταί Σελίδες, Vol. III, Athens 1967, p. 669. See also the article entitled; Τα χθεσινά εγκαίνια του Ιταλικού Οίκου, newspaper Proia, 11 June 1932. For Italy’s role as a Great Power at this time, see Svolopoulos, op. cit.
 Catalogue entitled έκθεσις των Ιταλών Φουτουριστών (Αεροζωγραφική), Italian Institute of Advanced Studies, Athens 1933. The presence of Marinetti in Athens at this time caused a great furore, for the bibliography on which see V. Kalamaras, Επιλογή ελληνικής βιβλιογραφίας για το κίνημα του φουτουρισμού, Διαβάζω periodical, no. 141, 9 April. 1986, pp. 54-55
 Catalogues entitled 2 /Ιταλική εβδομάς εν Αθήναις, 6 April- 4 May 1931, Zappeion Exhibition Hall, Athens; ‘Eκθεσις των Ιταλών….op. cit., and Ιταλική Έκθεσις Χαρακτικής και διακοσμητικής, 30 March – 14 April 1938, Italian Institute of Advanced Studies, Athens. For the organization of these Italian exhibitions by the Biennale, see P. Rizzi, E. Di Martino, “Le mostre all’estero” in Storia della Biennale 1895-1982, op. cit., p. 109.
 M. T(ombros), Οι χαράκτες των Σοβιετικών Δημοκρατιών στη λέσχη των καλλιτεχνών, 20ος αιώνας, 4-6, pp. 96-97, Z. Papantoniou, Οι Ρώσσοι χαράκται, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 16 December 1934.
 Catalogue entitled Ιταλική έκθεσις Χαρακτικής, op. cit., and see also I.M.Panayotopoulos, Χαρακτική και Διακοσμητική, newspaper Πρωία, 32 March 1938, and Η Ιταλική χαρακτική, by the same author, newspaper Πρωία 14 April 1938.
 Catalogue entitled IX Esposizione Internazionale d‘arte della città di Venezia, Venice 1910, p. 209; for this artist, see Bernard Dolman, A Dictionary of Contemporary British Artists, 1st ed., 1929, reprinted Woodbridge, Suffolk 1981; he may have been one of the ten children of Stefanos Mavrogordatos , E. Touloupa, Ειρήνη Μουρογορδάτου, news paper τα Νέα, 29 May 1991.
 Catalogue entitled IX Esposizione Internazionale d ‘arte della cita di Venezia, Venice 1924, p. 46.
 Catalogue entitled IX Esposizione Internazionale d ‘arte della cita di Venezia, Venice 1926, p. 140.
 Catalogue entitled IX Esposizione Internazionale d ‘arte, Venice 1934, pp. 339-355 and photografhs 180-183.
 Ibid, p. 339, and Anon., Η έκθεσις της Βενετίας, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 7 March 1934.
 M. Tombros republished in the periodical 20os Αιώνας (no. 4-6, pp. 90-96) many of the comments which appeared in the Italian Press; see, in particular, the article by Pippo Rizzo Ξένα Περίπτερα, taken from the periodical Quadrivio of 1 July 1934, which recommends that fewer exhibitors be sent to the 1936 exhibition, among them Parthenis, Tombros and Raftopoulou (20oς αιώνας, op. cit., pp. 93-94); the recommendation for fewer representatives was also made by Ugo Ojetti in the news paper Corriere della Sera, 17 July 1934 (republished in Περί Ελληνικής Τέχνης, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 19 July 1934).
 A total of four works were sold: La Canzone del Pierrot and Giovinezza, nos. 4 and 5 in the Catalogue, by Oumvertos Argyros, Visitor gradito, no. 47, by Loukas Yeralis, and the sculpture Pan, no. 130, by Thomas Thomopoulos (“Registro Vendite. XIX Biennale,1934” in Libro delle Vendite di opere d’arte esposte alle Espozioni Int. XVIII 1932,XIX 1934, XX 1936 e XXI 1938, manuscript notebook in 3to, ASAC.
 Anon. (M. Tombros), η συμμετοχή μας στη Διεθνή έκθεση της Βενετίας (1934), πολυαρχία – παρεξηγήσεις – αδράνεια – κριτικές, periodical 20oς Αιώνας no. 4-6, pp.89-90, and ο κατάλογος της Μπιενάλε του 1934 και οι αγορές που δεν έγιναν, op.cit., p. 97.
 Catalogue entitled Mostra dei Quarant’anni della Biennale. MDCCCXCV – MCMXXX, Venice 1935; Cesare Sofianopoulos exhibited in the Italian pavilion (see p. 146 of the Catalogue and S. Spanoudi, Στη Βενετία, newspaper Αθηναϊκά Νέα, 11 September 1935.
 For the Greek attitude, see C. Evelpidis, Η Ελλάς και οι κυρώσεις εναντίον της Ιταλίας, newspaper Αθηναϊκά νέα, 20 November 1935, and C.Z. Sazanidis. Op. cit., p.99; more generally, see Jean – Baprtiste Duroselle, Histoire diplomatique de 1919 Z nos jours, 9th ed., Paris 1985, pp. 185-1991
 Catalogue entitled XX Esposizione Biennale Internazionale d’arte, Venice 1936, pp. 276-287 and photographs 66-68; the Greek participation also included retrospective exhibitions devoted to Nikolaos Lytras, Constantine Maleas, Lykoyrgos Koyevinas and Markos Zavizianos.
 Ibid. p.276. The Greek representatives attracted little attention at this Biennale, either. Works were sole by Pavlos Rodokanakis (Paesaggio and Arenzano, nos 40 and 41 in the Catalogue), Oumbertos Argyros (Statuetta rota, no.6) and Spyros Vikatos (II fanciullio, no. 51), and Lykoyrgos Koyevinas sold three engravings (II Monastero di Stavronikita, no . 136, II Monastero di Dionise - Monte Athos, no. 127, and II Monastero di Simonopetra, no. 136; see “Registro Vendite, 1936” in Libro delle Vendite di opere …., op.cit., ASAC).
 Anon., Οι Καλλιτέχνες μας εις Σόφιαν, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 7 Μay 1936, and Οι Έλληνες καλλιτέχναι εν Σόφια, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 18 May 1936; see also Ivan Popov, Η Έκθεσις της ομάδος «Τέχνη» εις την Βουλγαρικήν Πρωτεύουσα, newspaper Καθημερινή, 26 May 1936; Spyros Vasileiou, Ένα ταξίδι στη Σόφια, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 26 May 1936, and Καλλιτέχναι και Πολιτική, (a letter from the Art Group), newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 14 June 1936.
 Anon., οι Έλληνες Καλλιτέχνες στη Σόφια. Op cit.
 On The Balkan pact and its significance, see Constantine D. Svolopoulos, το Βαλκανικόν Σύμφωνον και η Ελληνική εξωτερική πολιτική, 1928-1934, Athens 1974.
 Anon., Oι εκθέται του Ελληνικού Περιπτέρου, newspaper Η βραδυνή, 29 Αθγθστ 1937, and Anon., Τιμή εις Έλληνας καλλιτέχνας, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 28 October 1937. The Greek representatives won numerous distinctions.
 See the Article by Zacharias Papantoniou, “Artes plastique” , published anonymously in La Grèce actuelle, Athens 1933, pp. 76-93; Pantelis Prevelakis, “The Art of Modern Greece”, periodical The Studio, April 1938, pp. 175-190, and Manolis Chadjidakis, “Some aspects of modern Greek art”, in Perspective of Greece, an Atlantic Monthly supplement, New York 1955, pp. 31-42.
 For the role of the Venizelists in re–organising the arts, see Εκκλησία, Παιδεία, Τέχνη (an extract from Απολογισμός του έργου της κυβερνήσεως Φιλελευθέρων) Athens 1932; and for the work of the Metaxas regime and in particular of Prevelakis in the Directorate of Fine Arts of the Ministry, see Τα πεπραγμένα της Γεν. Διευθύνσεως Καλών Τεχνών κατά την τελευταίαν τριετίαν, periodical Nέα Εστία, no. 340, 15 February 1941, pp. 166-172.
 K.A. Dimadis, Δικτατορία – Πόλεμος και Πεζογραφία 1932-1944, Athens 1991, pp. 53-54.
 Prevelakis was appointed Director Second class in the Directorate of Fine Arts of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and education, by the Royal Degree of 16 August 1937 (Government gazette 134, 17 August 1937), and he has relieved of his post by the Decree of 4 July 1941 (Government gazette 130, 4 July 1941).
 Πρακτικά της διαδικασίας προς πλήρωσιν της τακτικής έδρας της Ιστορίας της νεωτέρας τέχνης, Universtity of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki 1935. Prevelakis was appointed Professor in the School by the Royal Decree of 14 October 1939 (Government Gazette 227, 27 October 1939). In 1937, he had succeeded in having issued Emergency Law 908/1937 (Government Gazette 416,20 October 1937) “concerning the organization the closure of the Educational Department of the School of Fine Arts and concerning the organization of the teaching of theoretical and historical courses in the School” This law established a chair of History and Science of Art, whose occupant would be appointed by the Minister, the views of the teaching staff being merely an expert opinion submitted to him (Article 4,para.2). The law laid down that the Professor appointed would hold the Directore of Fine Arts. In October of the same year, acting as the government’s commissioner in the School, Prevelakis compelled the reluctant Staff Assembly, under pressure, to announce o competition to fill the Chair of Sculpture, vacant since the death of Thomopoulos (Συνεδρίασις του Συλλόγου των Καθηγητών της 8ης Οκτωβρίου 1937, In Πρακτικά των Συνεδριάσεων του Συλλόγου των Καθηγητών της Ανωτάτης Σχολής Καλών Τεχνών. 13 Νοεμβρίου 1930 – 17 Ιουλίου 1944, 3ο manuscript notebook, pp 209-211, Archives of the School of Fine Arts ). On 10 December 1937, the staff elected Tombros Professor of Sculpture in the School (Συνεδρίασις του Συλλόγου των Καθηγητών της 10ης Δεκεμβρίου 1937 in Πρακτικά op. cit., pp. 220-223). Prokopiou appealed against the candidacy of Prevelakis, who was forced to withdraw () Αίτησις και ένστασις Αγγέλου Γ. Προκοπίου κατά Παντελή Πρεβελάκη προς τον Αξιότιμον Σύλλογον των κ.κ. Καθηγητών της Αν. Σχολής Καλών Τεχνών, 1 November 1937, ref.no.463, and Υπόμνημα Αγγελου Γ. Προκοπίου κατά Παντελή Πρεβελάκη προς τον Αξιότιμον Σύλλογον των κ.κ. καθηγητών της Α. Σχολής Καλών Τεχνών, 7 December 1937, ref. no. 470, in the file labelled «P.Prevelakis», Archive of the School of Fine Arts). Although Prevelakis was obliged to stand down as a candidate (see Πρακτικά…, op. cit., pp. 220-223 and had given an extension to the time limit for the submission of supplementary particulars.
 Government Gazette 204. 27 May 1937, Law 704
 Catalogue entitled XXI Esposizione Biennale Internationale d’Arte 1938, Venice, pp. 233-239 and photographs nos.40-42, with a foreword by P. Prevelakis. It is, perhaps indicative of the predominance of the Liberal camp that both Parthenis and Thodoropoulos were confirmed anti-monarchists. Fro Parthenis’ relations with the Liberals, and with Alecandros Papanastasiou in particular, see Miltiadis Papanikolaou, Πορτρέτα του Αλέξανδρου Παπαναστασίου από τον Κωνσταντίνο Παρθένη in the catalogue entitled Κωνσταντίνος Παρθένης (1878-1967), Τhessaloniki 1984, pp 27-40. In 1935, Theodoropoulos signed the proclamation issued by authors, artists and scientists opposing the revival of the question of the monarchy and in favour of a republic (see Οι διανοούμενοι και η Δημοκρατία, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 13 September 1935).
 Catalogue entitled XXII Esposizione Biennale Internationale d’Arte 1940, Venice, pp. 259-265 and photographs nos.93, 93, with a foreword by D. Evangelidis.
 P Prevelakis, Η Ελληνική Τέχνη στην έκθεση της Βενετίας, periodical Νέα Εστία. No 279, 1 August 1938, p.1029.
 The Italian Foreign Ministry bought The Annunciation, but paint for it less than half the price Parthenis had wanted : 10,000 lire instead of the 22,000 lire at which he had estimated it (see “Registro Vendite, 1938”, op. cit., ASAC, and Έντυπο της Μπιενάλε, completed and signed by Parthenis in Italian,, C. Parthenis, fasc. C. Parthenis ASAC). Ten engravings by Theodoropoulos (nos.129, 134, 136, 137, 144,152, 167, 169, 172 and 177 in the Catalogue) were also sold (By Rodokanakis Vendite, 1938” op. cit., ASAC). ) At the 1940 Biennale , only one painting was sold (by Rodokanakis, no. 36 in the Catalogue), together with engravings by D. Yannoukakis (nos. 64,65,66,75,69 and 73) and A. Koroyannakis (nos. 79, 84 and 86, see Libro delle vendite di opera d’arte alla XXII Esposizione Internazionale d’arte del 1940, 3o manuscript notebook, ASAC). The works sent to the exhibition were returned to Greece after the war.
 In 1937, the Association of Greek Artists was set up as s counterbalance and reaction to activities of the Art Group and the Free Artists ‘ Group. The Association’s Board consisted of. O. Fokas, D. Yearaniotis , P. Mathiopoulos, N. Othonaios, O. Argyros and F. Rok, with Kostas Dimitriadis as President. Its aims were to cultivate artistic sentiments in the public, to serve the aspirations of professionals, to organise art exhibitons in Greece and abroad and to obtain accommodation for the housing of aged and unfortunate artists (see ίδρυσης Εταιρείας Ελλήνων Καλλιτεχνών, newspaper Πρωία, 12 May 1937, and the letter from G. Prokopiou, Δια μιαν καλλιτεχνικήν ανακοίνωσιν, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 10 June 1937). A few months letter, the Greek Academic Artist’s Group was founded, for the purpose, at is stated in its manifesto, of protecting Academic Art against the new trends which have succeeded in shaking the faith of the public in the fine arts and, on the other hand, to combat the foreign influences which, in the name of misapprehended cosmopolitanism and freedom for the arts, have shattered and unsettled the pure national art of Greece The founder–members of the Group included Vikatos, Yeraniotis, Yeorgiadis, Lytras, Yeralis, Yermenis and Artemis (see Anon. Μια καλλιτεχνική κίνησις, newspaper Πρωία, 14 November 1937 and Anon., οι Έλληνες Ακαδημαικοί Ζωγράφοι, newspaper Έλευθερον Βήμα, 13 November 1937). The Group’s first move was to call upon compelled them to reconcile themselves with the other artists organisations (see Το κράτος και αι εικαστικαί τέχναι o κ. Πρωθυπουργός εκθέτει εις επιτροπήν τας απόψεις του, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 29 December 1938; οι Ακαδημαικοί και οι Φουτουρισταί εις χθεσινήν σύσκεψην των ζωγράφων ετέθησαν αι βάσεις της διαρρυθμίσεως της διαφοράς των newspaper Αθηναικά Νέα, 28 December 1937; G. Prokopiou, Περί ζωγραφικής, newspaper, Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 29 December 1937; Eleni Machaira, 4η Αυγούστου και Τέχνη, Periodical Εικαστικά , no. 7-8, Julu- August 1982, pp. 48-53, and AndrGas Ioannidis, Le contenu idéologique de la reference a la Grèce dans le domaine de l’art sous les regimes Fascistes, la Grèce de Metaxas, doctoral thesis, Université de Paris I (Pantheon-Sorbonne), Paris1986.
 Asim. Yal.(amas?), Ανάμεσα στους νέους ζωγράφους σπουδαστάς των καλών τεχνών, newspaper Ημερήσιος Κήρυξ, 4 February 1935. Even today, Greek art historians approach with some mystification the fact that the Parthenis studio in the School produced students - such as Moralis, Tsarouchis, Engonopoulos and Nikolaou - who headed in a variety of directions, and that those who in the post – War period turned towards abstract art studied not under Parthenis but with the Academist teachers in the School. In 1933, the art critic Zacharias Papantoniou was barracked viciously by all the students of the School except those of Parthenis when he came to teach art history, the reason being that he had published an article critical of Oumvertos Argyros ()see Anon θορυβώδεις σκηναί εις την σχολήν Καλών Τεχνών, newspaper Ελληνική, 6 April 1933., and Z. Papantoniou, Έκθεση Ουμβ. Αργυρού, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 2 April 1933. The letter sent by Parthenis to the administration of the School in 1935 gives a clear picture of the war waged against him by the other members of staff- including Dimitriadis- which involved his being deprived on three occasions of a room in the School for his studio (see the typed and signed letter from Parthenis, dated 11 February 1935, 2ff to the administration of the School of Fine Arts, in the file marked “K. Parthenis”, Archive of the School of Fine Arts).
 For the more general atmosphere in favour of the representational trends in Europe at the time, see the texts in catalogue of the exhibition entitled Les Réalismes. Paris 1980, by W. Schmied, J. Clair, Z. Birolli, F. Roche – PGzard, P. Vivarelli, G. Metken, B.Hinz, J. Vovelle, U. Linde, C. Derouet, I. Claverie, M.W. Brown, M.L. Borras, S. Wilson and Serge Fauchereau, “Les annGes 36”, la Querelle du Realisme, Paris 1987, pp. 9-39.
 Christian Zervos, Προς τους Έλληνες Καλλιτέχνες, periodical 20os Αιώνας, no. 4-6, p. 74.
 In 1936, Papaloukas was a candidate for the post of Director of the School’s annexe at Delphi, but received not one vote from the School’s staff (Parthenis was absent from the ballot) as against six for N. Othonaios (see Συνεδρίασις του Συλλόγου των Καθηγητών της 9ης Μαρτίου 1936, Πρακτικά….,op. sit., pp. 190-191. E. Zairis had been appointed Director of the Mykonos Annexe as far back as 1932 (see Συνεδρίασις…8ης Μαρτίου 1932, ibid., pp.40-41) and in 1939 P. Vyzantios was elected Director in Delphi (see Συνεδρίασις …20ης Ιουλίου 1939, ibid., pp. 280-283).
 In 1934, S. Skipis wrote of Bouzianis that with Expressionism, a system which caused a brief sensation in Paris and of which even the echoes died away long ago in Germany, he has chosen an entirely unsuitable period to make his appearance in Greece with such manifestoes (S. Skipis, καλλιτεχνικές εκδηλώσεις, newspaper Η Βραδυνή, 1November 1934.
 D. Pikionis, Το νεύμα της εποχής μας in Στέρης /18 κριτικά άρθρα γύρω από μια έκθεση, Athens 1931, reprinted by T. Gorpas in Στέρης, Athens 1982, pp.16-18
 In the form in which it has survived, this dialogue is inevitably unfair to Papantoniou, since his reply was an indirect one and took the form of articles about an exhibition by the Art Group and another by P. Aravantinos (Z. Papantoniou, Το έργο του Αραβαντινού, newspaper Ελεύθερον Βήμα, 24 Μay 1931, and Η έκθεση της ομάδος «Τέχνη», newspaper Ελεύθερον βήμα, 5 November 1931.
 L. Steris, Τέχνη και πνευματικότης in Steris, 18 κριτικά άρθρα γύρω από μία έκθεση, op. cit., pp. 18-20.
 With the exception of a few buildings designed in Greece in accordance with the principles of Le Corbusier and the inter – War period (see D. Filippidis, op. cit., pp. 205-236), abstract art was used as s style by graphic artists and set designers such as Angelos Spachis and Kleovoulos Klonis (see Periklis Vyzantios, Άγγελος Σπαχής, periodical Ζυγός, no. 63, February 1961, pp. 21-24 the photograph of the set for the 3rd act of Tibuk designed by Klonis, periodical 46, nay 1929, p. 19, and the famous design for the set of the Agamemnon, 1932, in Dionysis Fotopoulos, Σκηνογραφία στο Ελληνικό Θέατρο, Athens 1987, Photograph 78, pp. 37-38.
 Διακήρυξις των Νέων Ρεαλιστών / Β΄ Έκθεσις σπουδαστών καλλιτεχνών, Athens 1937; this text, Marxist in its inspiration, reflects the considerable influence which Marxist ideas had on intellectuals and artists – particularly the younger ones – during the period between the Wars, and it is quite clear that Marxist criticism rejected abstract art (see P. Pikros, Πάνω στη μορφή και το περιεχόμενο της τέχνης, periodical Πρωτοπόροι, no. 8, September 1931, pp. 327-331; Mario Vitti erroneously attributes this article to Kostas Vamalis, see Η γενιά του τριάντα 3rd Athens 1982, pp. 55-56).
 F. Kontoglou , Η περίφημη ελευθερία κτλπ., newspaper Πρωία, 19 June 1934.
|Last Updated on Tuesday, 15 November 2011 08:46|